Admittedly, at times this study has seemed very broad. For example, I am aware that entire tutorials have been written on Biblical leadership, church growth leadership, and situational leadership. Here, I have simply included them as important issues.
Although the leadership topics have been broad, the ever present challenge in this tutorial has been to include only the leadership theory that best applies to the cell church-- and more specifically to the cell church in Latin America. My hope is that this tight relationship is evident throughout.
As we have seen, in the cell church there are a variety of applications to leadership models and theory. We looked at the ever present need for new cell leadership in a church which is rapidly multiplying cell groups. We saw that in the cell church, leadership training begins when a new covert is added to the cell group for the first time. Instead of creating an additional structure to care for the new convert, the cell church emphasizes “in-house” or “in-cell” training. The goal is to turn the zealous new convert into an effective cell leader who will in turn train others. A number of leadership models were also examined, and it was determined that the Cho model is the most complete.
Beyond models of training, we delved into the content of the training. Specifically what kind of content is needed to raise up unapologetic church growth leadership within the cell church. Throughout this tutorial, I have not tried to hide my bias toward church growth leadership. As I have mentioned many times, I view cell-based ministry as a very important methodology in the larger discipline of church growth, and not as an end in itself. Keeping in mind the various levels of leadership in the cell church, I tried to apply principles to cell leaders and paradigms to top leadership, although these categories are more fluid than stringent.
For me, the most important part of this study was the last chapter. I have become increasingly aware of the need to deeply understand Latin culture in order to properly apply leadership theory and principles. Too often, there is a wholesale application of North American leadership to Latin culture that fit no better than Saul’s armor on the boy David.
Since I have tried to apply leadership theory to cell based ministry along the way, I will not repeat myself here. Simply to say that cell-based ministry offers some exciting leadership challenges. Perhaps cell-based leadership can best be described as extended leadership since a giant net of leadership is needed. Although strong, charismatic leadership is essential in the cell church, there is no such thing as the super pastor---the one who does everything himself. Rather, leadership in the cell church is distributed throughout, so that it reaches down to the lowest denominator. From this study, I think we can conclude that although the need for leadership is great in the cell church, the potential is even greater for raising up an army of church growth leaders through the cell church.
To be honest, I was not sure where to place Dr. Clinton’s research on leadership. It does not qualify for pure church growth leadership theory, nor does it apply specifically to one particular level of cell leadership. Nor do I believe that knowledge of Clinton’s literature is essential for success in the cell church today. Rather, I view his research as more qualitative and reflective in nature. It gives a leader the chance to examine his or her life from the perspective of God’s sovereignty. It can bring clarity as the leader’s giftedness and future ministry focus. weakness, and possibilities for the future.
has written and taught on a number of areas which include: Leadership Theory,
Leadership Giftedness, Leadership Training Models, Leadership Philosophy,
Leadership In The Bible, Change Dynamics, Mentoring, and Leadership Emergence.
In this appendix, I will include only two areas of Clinton’s research that I
feel might most directly apply to a cell leadership or top leadership in the
cell church (i.e., section leader, zone leader, district pastor, or senior
Perhaps, the concept of Emergence theory can best be described by the quote, "If
you know that God will be developing you over a lifetime, you'll most likely
stay for the whole ride" (1988:23). His basic thesis
is that, "God develops a leader over a lifetime.
His theory comes from studying some 800 leaders.
Clinton sees 5 major stages of leadership development. The following chart
helps clarify :
STAGES OF LEADERSHIP DEVELOPMENT
from Clinton 1988)
That development is a function of the use of events and people to
impress leadership lessons upon a leader. This development of a leader (or
processing) is central to Dr. Clinton’s leadership
theory. He has discovered that
all leaders can point to critical incidents in their lives where God taught
them something very important" (1988:24). One of the key concepts in
Clinton’s Emergence theory is
how God uses tests, challenges, and trials to mold us and shape us. These
tests are called process items. Clinton states, “Upon successful completion
of the ministry task, the leader is usually given a bigger task"
(1988:34). He then adds, "Can
you be faithful in little things? You may not see the importance of small
tasks now, but can you do faithfully what is given you? If you can, then
you'll be given greater things. If not, God will have to teach the same lesson
again" (1988:35). He elaborates on a number of tests that he has noticed in the lives of
great leaders. Some of them include:
He elaborates on a number of tests that he has noticed in the lives of
great leaders. Some of them include:
the leader respond honestly?
Will the leader
be obedient to the voice of God? He says, "A leader who repeatedly
demonstrates that God speaks to him gains spiritual authority" (1988:69). A leader first learns about personal guidance for his own life.
Having learned to discern God's direction for his own life in numerous crucial
decisions, he can then shift to the leadership function of determining
guidance for the group that he leads (1988:127).
Will the leader submit to
that person that God has placed over him?
He writes, "A developing leader will usually struggle with someone
who is in authority over him. Learning submission is critical to learning what
authority is, so emerging leaders must first learn to submit" (1988:81).
He goes on to say, "An important thing to keep in mind is that the
ultimate assignment is from God, even if the ministry task is self-initiated
or assigned by another” (1988: 83).
PRINCIPLES FOR LEADERSHIP DEVELOPMENT
from Clinton 1989)
Leadership development theory can be very helpful in the life of cell leadership. It is always beneficial to meditate on how
God has prepared us through His sovereign working. This theory can also
suggest future direction as well.
The reason that I chose mentoring among Clinton’s research is because
it might help a cell leader more effectively raise up the cell intern. Clinton
has written an important book on the subject called, The Mentor Handbook
Clinton defines mentoring as: A relational process,
· In which someone who knows something, the mentor
· Transfers that something (the power resources such as wisdom, advice, information, emotional support, protection, linking to resources, career guidance, status)
To someone else, the mentoree, At a sensitive
time so that it impacts development (2-4)
There are some basic considerations in the mentor-mentoree training
· Attraction of the mentoree to the mentor
People have a tendency to try to live up to the genuine expectations of those they admire and respect. The attraction must be both ways.
Clinton has demonstrated that mentoring covers a wide variety of relationships. The following chart will help to clarify those categories:
OF MENTORING MODELS
from Clinton 1991)
As the chart demonstrates, mentoring might be an active discipleship
relationship, an occasional contact, or even a relationship with a person via
books or example. I believe that
this is a helpful clarification.
I have found this section one of the most helpful. Co-mentoring is when two people come together on a regular basis to hold each other accountable. Clinton says, “It seems that because both parties are at about the same developmental level in terms of age, situational pressures, spiritual maturing and ministry experience that there exists the possibility for more honest openness to come into play” (13-1). The relationship is the key dynamic here. It’s not the type of mentoring. There must be an attraction and respect for one another. It should be ‘fun’ to be with that person. Clinton says, “Relaxed times together are just as important as serious times together” (13-2).
As I mentioned previously, the need for new leadership in the cell church is enormous. A cell leader should know how to mentor someone from within the group who will eventually lead another group. The relationship that the cell leader has with his intern will vary according to the situation and needs of the intern (situational leadership). Therefore, Clinton’s study on mentoring gives the cell leader new, more creative options.
Anderson, Neil T. and Charles Mylander
1994 Setting Your Church Free. Ventura: Regal Books.
Barker, Steve, Judy Johnson, Bob Malone, Ron Nicholas and Doug Whalen.
Things Come In Small Groups. Illinois: InterVarsity Press.
Friendly Churches. Ventura: Regal Books.
Power of Vision. Ventura: Regal.
Beckham, William A.
The Second Reformation. Houston: Touch Publications.
Bennis Warren and Burt Nanus
The Strategies For Taking Charge. New York: Harper Perennial.
of the Bethany Cell Conference. Baton Rouge, Louisiana: Bethany World
Berg, Mike and Paul Pretiz
1996 Spontaneous Combustion: Grass-Roots Christianity, Latin American Style.
Pasadena: William Carey Library.
the Church Through Small Groups in the Australian Context.”
Fuller Theological Seminary.
The Fourth Dimension. Miami: Logos International.
Successful Home Cell Groups. Miami: Logos International.
Staff For A Large Church. Church Growth Lectures. Audio tape 2. Pasadena,
CA: Fuller Theological Seminar, School of World Mission.
Clinton, Dr. J. Robert
Making of a Leader. Colorado Springs: NavPress.
Emergence Theory. Altadena: Fuller Seminary.
Mentor Handbook. Altadena:
Perspectives. Altadena: Barnabas Publishers.
Leadership Giftedness. Altadena: Barnabas Publishers.
Concepts. Altadena: Barnabas Publishers.
Seven Habits of Highly Effective People.
Simon & Schuster.
E-mail to Dan Gibson. April 12.
Dealy, Glen Caudill
Latin Americans Spirit and Ethos.
San Francisco: Westview Press.
Dobbins, G. S.
Aprenda A Ser Líder.
Argentina: Casa Bautista De Publicaciones.
Spanish Conquest and Settlement of America” in The Cambridge History . Vol I. Leslie Bethel, ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Engstrom, Ted W.
Making Of A Christian Leader. Grand Rapids: Zondervan.
Are Made, Not Born. Minneapolis: Editorial Betania.
"Ecuador in Pictures-Visual Geography Series."
Lerner Publications, Geography
20/20 Vision. Oregon: Scott Publishing.
The Small Group Book. Grand Rapids: Fleming H. Revell.
The New Latins. New York: DoubleDay Company.
Considerations.” In Shaping a New World:. Edward Cleary. ed. Pp.27-79. Maryknoll, New
York: Orbis Books.
Your Church For The Future. Grand Rapids: Baker Book House.
To Break Growth Barriers. Grand Rapids: Baker Book House.
Coming Church Revolution. Grand Rapids: Fleming H. Revell.
Believe in Church Growth. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans Publishing Company.
Fielder, Fred E.
Theory of Leadership Effectiveness. New York: McGraw Hill.
Understanding Leadership. London: Daybreak.
Hadaway, C. Kirk
Home Cell Groups and House Churches. Nashville: Broadman Press.
Growth Principles: Separating Fact from Fiction. Nashville: Broadman.
That Endures In A World That Changes. El Paso: Editorial Mundo Hispano.
Hall, John Jr.
Ministry Factors In Latin America. Ph.D. dissertation. Fuller Seminary.
Hamlin, Dr. Judy
Small Group Leaders Training Course. Colorado: Navpress.
Hersey, P. and Blanchard K.
Management of Organizational Behavior. New Jersey, Prentice
The Making of a Leader. Downers Grove, Illinois: InterVarsity
The Seven Laws of Christian Leadership. Ventura: Regal Books.
Consequence. Beverly Hills: Sage Publications.
Discipleship Track. Baton Rouge: Bethany World Prayer Center.
Hunter, George G. III
Church for the Unchurched. Nashville: Abingdon Press.
Growing the World’s Largest Church. Springfield: Chrism.
Importance of Small Group Multiplication” in Global Church Growth.
no 4, p. 12.
Olien, Michael D.
Americans: Contemporary Peoples and
Their Cultural Traditions. New York:
Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc.
Lingenfelter, Sherwood G. and Marvin K. Mayers
Ministering Cross-Culturally. Grand Rapids: Baker Book House.
Church Growth. 3rd ed. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans.
Moran, Robert T. and Philip R. Harris
Cultural Synergy. Vol. 2. Houston: Gulf Publishing Company.
Cultural Differences. 2nd ed. Houston: Gulf Publishing Company.
Leadership. San Francisco: Jossey Boss Publications.
Do We Go From Here A Guidebook for the
Cell Group Church. Houston:
Groups Opening Hearts. Houston: Touch Publications.
Shepherd's Guidebook: A Leader's Guide
for the Cell Group Church. Houston: Touch Publications.
Arrival Kit. Houston: Touch Publications.
To Your Changed Life. Houston: Touch Publications.
Believer’s Station. Houston: Touch Publications.
Guidebook. Houston: Touch Publications.
Latin Americans. Pasadena:
William Carey Library.
Peters, Thomas J.
on Chaos. New York: HarperPerennial.
America Today and Tomorrow. Washington, D.C.: Acropolis Books, Ltd.
Price, Richard and Pat Springle
Rapha’s Handbook for Group Leaders. Houston: Rapha Publishing.
Rainer, Thom S.
The Book of Church Growth. Nashville: Broadman Press.
Latin Americans Their Love-Hate
Relationships With the United States. New Brunswick: Transaction Books.
Richards, Lawrence and Clyde Hoeldtke
A Theology of Church Leadership. Grand Rapids: Zondervan.
Sanders, J. Oswald.
Leadership. Chicago: Moody Press.
Silvert, Kalman H.
In Understanding Latin America. Philadelphia: Institute For The Study
- An Andean Enigma. London:
Stogdill, Ralph Melvin
“Personal Factors Associated With Leadership: A Survey of the
Literature” in Journal of Psychology, pp. 25, 35-71.
Urbanski, Edmund Stephen
America And Its Civilizations. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press.
Wagner, C. Peter
1973 "Pragmatic Strategy for Tomorrow's Mission" in God Man and Church Growth. Grand Rapids: Baker.
Church Can Grow. Ventura: Regal.
Spiritual Gifts Can Help Your Church Grow. Glendale: Regal.
Your Church to Growth. Ventura: Regal.
How To Build A The Purpose Driven Church.
Saddleback Seminar Workbook.
1973 Area Handbook for Ecuador. Washington, U.S. Government Printing Office.
Wilke, Richard B
Are We Yet Alive? Nashville: Abingdon Press.
Leadership Style of Jesus. Canada: Victor Books.
 I have become increasingly concerned about the lack of distinction between leaders and non-leaders in Clinton’s framework. For example, Clinton talks about God’s preparation in the life of a potential leader through various checks. However, are not those checks used in the life of Christian non-leaders? At times, it seems that Clinton is simply reiterating what the Bible says about every Christian—not necessarily Christian leadership. He has arrived at his theories by using the grounded research technique (discovering patterns and similarities among leaders). However, he has not used grounded research to study non-leaders, so I wonder how specifically his research relates to leadership.